Hakimiyyah Was Introduced In Makkah

“And if the Makkan chapters concentrated on the aspect of beliefs (belief in Allah, the Last Day, the Angels, the Books, the Prophets, the good and bad of fate and predistination) and character, and hardly any rituals of worship were obligated in Makkah, then the Madani chapters concentrated intensely on the concept of judgement (Hakimiyyah), and the obligation of applying the Shari’ah of Allah, and considering this to be the prime indicator of true faith, while simultaneously giving due attention to character and other acts of worship that were obligated in Madinah. However, from the clearest of mistakes is to assume that the issue of Hakimiyyah – i.e., admitting that the right of judgement belongs solely to Allah, and that the right of legislation of permissibility, prohibition, allowing, and preventing is a specific right of Allah, with no human sharing that right with Him, and that legislating by other than what Allah Revealed constitutes polytheism, and that obedience to those who legislate by other than what Allah Revealed constitutes polytheism – from the clearest of mistakes is to assume that this concept was introduced in Madinah, when the legislations began in order that the Muslims would run their lives according to them.

Rather, it was introduced in a clear, straightforward manner in Makkah, in more than one Makki chapter, as a principle from the principles of the belief that there is none worthy of worship but Allah.

For example, take this verse from the Makki chapter, ‘al-A’raf’:

{“Follow what has been sent down unto you from your Lord, and do not follow any awliya’ besides Him. Little do you remember!”} [al-A’raf; 3] So, how does this verse benefit us at all in this discussion?

It helps by showing that the people are in one of two situations, one of which, they are commanded with, and the other, they are forbidden from. The first is faith (Iman), and the second is polytheism (shirk).

So, the obligation of faith is indicated in the words {“Follow what has been sent down unto you from your Lord…”}, and its opposite – following other than what Allah has Revealed, or following other awliya’, associates, etc. – is the clearest of forms of polytheism. Take, also, this verse from ‘al-A’raf’:

{“Surely, His is the Creation and Commandment.”} [al-A’raf; 54] So, this verse confirms two things at one time:

The first is that the Commandment is solely for Allah – the entire command, with no restriction to a particular area; the command in the heavens and the Earth, and in the lives of all humanity.

As for what is in the heavens and the Earth, this is in the Saying of Allah immediately before the above verse: {“Indeed, your Lord is Allah, Who created the heavens and the Earth in Six Days, and then He rose over the Throne. He brings the night as a cover over the day, seeking it rapidly, and the Sun, the Moon, and the stars are subjected to His Command.”} [al-A’raf; 54]

As for the lives of humanity, this is in the Saying of Allah immediately after the above verse: {“Invoke your Lord with humility and in secret. He likes not the aggressors, and do not do mischief on the Earth after it has been set in order…”} [al-A’raf; 55] meaning: do not transgress by going beyond the Command of Allah, and do not cause mischief in the land by following other than the Law and methodology of Allah, after it has been set in order with the revelation of this Law. As for the second concept that is confirmed, it is the concept of Hakimiyyah in the heavens and the Earth, and in the lives of all of humanity, extended from the fact that He Created them (or, that He had the ability to do so), as the one who has the ability to create something is the sole judge in the affairs of that thing. So, if Allah – the Exalted – is the sole Creator, He is, likewise, the sole owner of Command in the heavens and the Earth, and the lives of all humanity.

Take, also, this verse from the Makki chapter, ‘ash-Shura’:

{“And in whatsoever you differ, the decision is with Allah. Such is Allah, my Lord, in Whom I put my trust, and to Him I turn in all of my affairs and in repentance.”} [ash-Shura; 10] So, this is a reconfirmation of this concept. It returns the right of judgement to Allah in all things, in all aspects of people’s lives. So, His Saying {“…whatsoever …”} means everything, in a general sense. The judgement for everything is to be teturned to Allah, in terms of whether it is permissible, forbidden, liked, disliked, desired, etc. The verse before this one confirms the same meaning that was discussed in the verse of ‘al-A’raf’:{“Or have they taken awliya’ besides Him? But, Allah, He Alone is the Wali, and it is He Who gives life to the dead, and He is Able to do all things.

} [ash-Shura; 9] So, returning Hakimiyyah to Allah in all affairs is the definition of faith, and the opposite of this is to take other awliya’ – i.e., to perform shirk – and this is an action of falsehood, as Allah is the sole Wali, and He is the One who gives life to the dead, and He is Able to do all things.

Likewise, look at His Saying, in ‘ash-Shura’: {“Or do they have partners with Allah who have instituted for them a religion which Allah has not allowed?”} [ash-Shura; 21] However, the following verses from ‘al-An’am’ explain the issue in a clearer fashion:

{“Shall I seek a judge other than Allah, while it is He Who has sent down unto you the Book, explained in detail? Those unto whom We gave the Scripture know that it is revealed from your Lord in truth. So, be not you of those who doubt. And the Word of your Lord has been fulfilled in truth and in justice. None can change His Words, and He is the All-Hearer, the All-Knower. And if you obey most of those on Earth, they will mislead you far away from Allah’s Path. They follow nothing but conjectures, and they do nothing but lie. Verily, your Lord! It is He Who knows best who strays from His Way, and He knows best the rightly guided ones. So, eat of that on which Allah’s Name has been pronounced, if you are believers in His verses. And why should you not eat of that on which Allah’s Name has been pronounced, while He has explained to you in detail what is forbidden to you, except under compulsion of necessity? And surely, many do lead mankind astray by their own desires through lack of knowledge. Certainly, your Lord knows best the transgressors. Leave sin, open and secret. Verily, those who commit sin will get due recompense for that which they used to commit. Eat not of that on which Allah’s Name has not been pronounced, for sure, it is a sin. And certainly, the devils do inspire their friends to dispute with you, and if you obey them, then you would indeed be polytheists.”} [al-An’am; 114-121]

They begin with this question: {“Shall I seek a judge other than Allah?”} This is what supports the concept that Hakimiyyah is solely for Allah. He is the One deserving to be taken as a Judge, and it is not for anyone else to be taken as a judge in any affair. Then, it is shown that He is the One who Revealed the Book in a clear fashion, so, there is no excuse for anyone to take as a judge anyone other than Allah in any affair. It should be noticed that this verse is Makki, and is in a chapter that is Makki, and that, in Makkah, not all of the legislations that the people required for their daily lives had been revealed. Rather, this was in Madinah. So, the conclusion that the verse is pointing to is not necessarily that of the secondary rulings, themselves. Rather, the conclusion is being clarified here is in regards to the great affair of Hakimiyyah, and that it is from the fundamentals of belief, and that one’s belief is not complete or correct unless it translates into compliance with what has been brought from Allah – whether that happens to be much or little, and whether that happens to involve belief, character, or rulings…

…Then comes the affair for which all of these others simply serve as an introduction for: the concept of what is permissible and forbidden (at-tahlil wat-tahrim), who it is that determines this, the position of the believers from this in relation to the position of the polytheists, and what makes the person a believer or a polytheist, in this regard.

The polytheists of Makkah used to not mention the Name of Allah when slaughtering some meat, and they’d declare it permissible to eat, and they turned this affair into one of legislation on their own behalf, without any permission of proof from Allah. So, Allah forbade the believers from eating what has not had Allah’s Name mentioned upon it – the dead meat that has been forbidden by Allah – and He warns them that if they obey the polytheists in this act, they are polytheists, just like them, as they are obeying a legislation of jahiliyyah that Allah has not sent down a proof for.

From all of this, it becomes clear that the issue of Hakimiyyah was not introduced in Madinah, after the sending down of legislations. Rather, it began in Makkah, when the beliefs were still being established, and the implications of ‘La ilaha ill Allah’ were being clarified. The clearcut rulings came afterwards in Madinah to support the concept that the ones who do not rule by what Allah has sent down are the disbelievers, and that one is not considered a believer until he makes Allah and His Messenger the reference for judgement in all his affairs – all in manifestation and confirmation of the beliefs that were laid down in Makkah.”

[‘Mafahim Yambaghi an Tusahhah’; p. 47-53]

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